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You should know about National Generic Document Registration System (NGDRS)

The NGDRS is a state-specific platform, where property buyers and sellers can pay stamp duty and registration charges and book an appointment with the SRO for property registration

In order to move towards digitization and promote ease of doing business, the government of India launched the National Generic Document Registration System (NGDRS) as a pilot programme, under which property registration facility would be available online across the country. From NGDRS payment of stamp duty to online appointment booking at the sub-registrar’s office (SRO), the entire process has been made seamless with the help of the system.

Importance of NGDRS

The NGDRS represents a major shift from the existing manual registration system to an online system, for all types of transactions, including sale, purchase and transfer of land. Initially, the system was piloted in Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra but later, more states joined in, including Jammu and Kashmir and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The system will also encourage the offices working in geographically remote areas, to adopt technology and digitisation and reduce manual effort, thereby, reducing errors in land records.

See Also : Effect of Coronavirus on Indian Real Estate

NGDRS in states

Several states have adopted the National Generic Document Registration System:

  • Punjab
  • Rajasthan
  • Maharashtra
  • Goa
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Bihar
  • Jharkhand
  • Manipur
  • Mizoram
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Kerala
  • Uttarakhand

Property registrations through National Generic Document Registration System

The National Generic Document Registration System NGDRS has made property registrations simple and quick. Here are the steps to follow on states’ registration portals, to register your property purchase/sale:

1) Citizen registration

  • Enter a valid 10-digit mobile number and enter a username of your preference.
  • Then enter a password (the password should contain at least one uppercase, one lowercase, one digit and one special character).
  • Enter the characters from the captcha image in the given field and click on ‘submit’ to save the records. (If the record has been saved successfully, a success message is displayed.)
  • By clicking on the ‘cancel’ button, the user will be redirect to the homepage.

See Also : Lucky Plants For The House

2) Property valuation

Property valuation uses a combination of property usage, valuation rules formulated by the state government authority, development zones, construction type, depreciation if any, road connectivity, etc. Here’s how to do property valuation using the National Generic Document Registration System:

Factors used by NGDRS for property valuation

  • Rate chart prepared by the department considering
  • Location-wise major usage factors
  • Government regulations and activities
  • Economic activities and trends
  • Future benefits
  • Age of the property and construction type
  • Area of construction
  • Area of land
  • Parking area
  • Area of non-cultivated land

Step-by-step procedure of property valuation

1: Open the National Generic Document Registration System site of the respective state where the property is located.

2: Register as a citizen for National Generic Document Registration System login. Use the citizen credentials to login to the system.

3: Select the financial year. Citizens can select the previous financial year, so that the valuation for a particular year is also possible.

4: Select the district, taluka and corporation/municipal council.

5: View survey number for a particular location.

6: Select property usage.

7: Select the construction type.

8: Select the age and road vicinity.

9: Click ‘Calculate & Save’.

10: The valuation report will appear on the screen.

See Also : Guidance About Waterproofing Your Home

Documents required for property registration through National Generic Document Registration System

  • Valid citizen user credential
  • Property location details
  • Valuation zone details
  • Property usage


What is full form of NGDRS?

National Generic Document Registration System.

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You should know about Panvel Municipal Corporation (PMC)

Panvel Municipal Corporation (PMC)
Spread over 110 hectares, Panvel has a population of five lakh people

After over two decades of demands being made by locals, the Maharashtra government, in September 2016, issued a notification declaring Panvel a municipal corporation. The Panvel Municipal Corporation (PMC) came into existence from October 1, 2016.

The notification to convert Panvel into a corporation was first issued in 1991 but the attempts did not materialize. The formation of the PMC resulted in India’s first municipal council in Panvel becoming a municipal corporation – the Panvel Municipal Council was established on August 25, 1852, as the first municipal council in India by the British. It is also Maharashtra’s 27th and Raigad district’s first municipal corporation.

Areas under the PMC

The Panvel Municipal Corporation has jurisdiction over Panvel city and 29 villages. The 29 villages under the PMC include Taloja Panchnand, Kalundre, Kharghar, Ulwe, Devicha Pada, Kamothe, Chal, Navde, Tondare, Pendhar, Kalamboli, Khidukpada, Roadpali, Padghe, Walvli, Pale Khurd, Tembhode, Asudgaon, Bid, Adivali, Rohinjan, Dhansar, Pisarve, Turbhe, Karvale Budruk, Nagzari, Taloje Majkur, Ghot and Koynavele. The areas under the PMC also cover Taloja MIDC, CIDCO areas and several gram panchayats.

See Also : You should know about (DMRC) Delhi Metro Rail Corporation

With effect from October 1, 2016, the whole of Panvel Municipal Council smaller urban area and the areas specified in the schedule, shall be a larger urban area known by the name of the Municipal Corporation of the city of Panvel.

Spread over 110 hectares, Panvel has a population of five lakh people, according to the Census 2011.

Property tax bill Panvel Municipal Corporation online payment

On the homepage, towards the right side you would find the ‘Know and Pay Your Property Tax’ tab. Click on the same to proceed with property tax payment in Panvel.

See Also : All you need to know about Duplex Houses

Citizen services on Panvel Municipal Corporation website

Quick links on the PMC portal that help citizens avail of various services and information include the ‘Know and Pay your Water Dues’ and ‘Birth, Death Register Certificate’. You can also pay the Local Body Tax (LBT) on the portal.

PMC launches online payment option for property tax

In March 2021, the civic body launched an online Panvel Municipal Corporation property tax payment option. Since this was the first time that the PMC would collect property tax since its inception in 2016, it would levy the property tax retrospectively.

See Also : In 2021,10 Home Decor trends will rule


What comes under Panvel Municipal Corporation?

The Panvel Municipal Corporation includes Panvel city. 29 villages, Taloja MIDC, & CIDCO areas and several Gram Panchayats.

When did Panvel Municipal Corporation come into existance?

The Panvel Municipal Corporation was established in 1852 and the Panvel Municipal Corporation came into existence on 1st Oct, 2016.


You should know about (DMRC) Delhi Metro Rail Corporation

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
DMRC is one of the leading metro rail agencies in the world, which has been involved in metro rail and monorail projects across countries

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) is one of the pioneer organizations in India that paved the way for developing the country’s biggest metro rail network.

Apart from planning and developing new metro route extensions in the national capital, the technical expertise of the DMRC is actively sought by various bodies, domestically and internationally. Started in 1995, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) is a state-centre public sector company, which is also responsible for operating the day-to-day functions of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC).

DMRC objectives

According to the DMRC official portal, here are some mission statements that the agency works on:

  • To cover all of Delhi and its adjoining areas with a Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) network.
  • For serving ‘differently abled’ commuters with passion.
  • To offer a top-quality transportation system in Asia, in terms of safety, reliability, punctuality, quality and responsiveness.
  • For making the Delhi Metro network self-sustainable.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) network

Delhi Metro Red Line

The Delhi Metro Red Line commercial operations began in 2002. This was the first line to become operational. The entire route was made operational in five phases. The first phase was between Shahdara and Tis Hazari, followed by Tis Hazari-Inderlok, Inderlok-Rithala and Dilshad Garden-Shahdara. The latest phase between Dilshad Garden and Shaheed Sthal became operational in 2019. The Red Line now connects Shaheed Sthal in Sahibabad with Rithala.

Delhi Metro Blue Line

There are two routes under the Blue Line. One connects Dwarka with Noida Electronic City and other with Vaishali. This line was also made operational in multiple phases and links with a number of other metro routes along the corridor. The Blue Line operates as one between Dwarka and Yamuna Bank and diverges towards Noida and Vaishali from here. This line was first operationalized in 2005.

See Also : You should know about MahaRERA

Delhi Metro Green Line

This route connects Inderlok (Red Line) with Mundka. It has now been extended till Bahadurgarh. The line also has connectivity to the Blue Line through an interchange at Ashok Park main. The latest extension was made operational in 2018. It is connected Delhi with the outskirts of Haryana, giving a major push to real estate markets along the corridor.

See Also : All you need to know about Duplex Houses

Delhi Metro Yellow Line

The Delhi Metro Yellow Line connects HUDA City Centre with Jahangirpuri. The route was made operational in six stages, starting with Vishwavidyalaya-Kashmere Gate. The route is followed by Kashmere Gate-Central Secretariat, Vishwavidyalaya-Jahangirpuri, HUDA City Centre-Qutab Minar, Central Secretariat-Qutab Minar and Jahangirpuri-Samaypur Badli. The first route began in 2004 while the last stretch was started in 2015. This route connects two different ends of Delhi NCR and is one of the longest routes on the DMRC network.

Delhi Metro Pink Line

This is one of the recent metro routes to become operational under the Delhi Metro Phase-III. The Delhi Metro Pink Line is a circular line that links all the networks and will connect Majlis Park with Shiv Vihar. Currently, a small section between Mayur Vihar Phase-1 and Trilokpuri is under-construction. Therefore, the line is being made operational in two tranches – Mayur Vihar Phase-1 to Majlis Park and Trilokpuri to Shiv Vihar. The line is expected to be completely operational in the next few months.

Delhi Metro Magenta Line

The Delhi Metro Magenta Line is another route that connects Noida with the south and western regions of Delhi. The Magenta Line connects Botanical Garden with Janakpuri West via south Delhi, unlike the Delhi Metro Blue Line that passes through Central Delhi. The Magenta Line became completely operational in 2018.

See Also : In 2021,10 Home Decor trends will rule

Delhi Metro Violet Line

The Violet Line connects Kashmere Gate (Red, Yellow Line) with Faridabad, another NCR town in Haryana. The route was first made operational in 2010 and since then, seven major extensions have come up on the corridor. The latest extension was opened between Badarpur and Ballabgarh in 2018.

Delhi Metro Grey Line

This is the shortest route on the Delhi Metro network. The Delhi Metro Grey Line currently connects Dwarka with Najafgarh, an urban village on the outskirts of the NCR. It has three stations, which becam operational in October 2019.

Delhi Metro Phase-IV

Approved in 2018, the much-awaited Phase 4 of the Delhi Metro includes six corridors. Out of which three have been listed as ‘priority’ corridors. These three corridors are:


Janakpuri-RK Ashram


There will be 17 underground and 29 elevated stations in the three corridors. Whose total length will be 61 kms (22 kms underground and 39.320 kms elevated).

See Also : Gardening of Balconies for Indian homes

Airport Metro Express Line

This is one of the fastest lines on the network, which connects the New Delhi railway station with the Indira Gandhi International Airport Terminal-3. The Delhi Metro Airport Line became operational in 2011. It is also called as the Delhi Metro Orange Line. This route offers the fastest way to reach the airport from central Delhi.


How many routes are open in Delhi Metro?

There are 9 metro routes which are currently operational on the Delhi Metro network.

Is DMRC government or private?

DMRC is a government organization, with equal participation from the Central & State government.


All you need to know about Duplex Houses

duplex house
Let us find out what a duplex is and how it is different from two-storey homes

Although they have become quite common in Indian real estate, a lot of confusion still persists, with regard to duplex house meaning. As they are often confused with two-storey homes, let us find out what a duplex is and how it is different from two-storey homes.

What is a duplex house?

A duplex house is a residential building constructed on two floors. It has a single dining room and a single kitchen. It has a common central wall and consists of two living units, either side-by-side or on two floors, with separate entries. While there are two floors, it is sold together and owned by an individual. It may have separate entry points for both floors.

In India, duplexes generally have a kitchen, hall and bedrooms on the lower floor while the upper floor houses the master bedroom. A duplex always has two floors and never three or four floors, in which case it would be called a multiplex.

In western countries, duplex homes may even house two families, where each floor is a separate dwelling altogether. Duplexes can provide healthy rental returns, because the owner family can always rent out one section of their property to tenants. In such cases, the entrance will be separate and a common wall will divide the large house into two.

See Also : You should know about MahaRERA

Difference between duplex and villa

A villa may or may not be a two-storeyed property and is usually larger than a duplex house. Both are used for residential purposes but a villa is considered as a plush purchase, when compared to a duplex. A villa is generally the first choice for those who want total privacy. In fact, the villa concept dates back to the Roman era, when the rich and the famous moved to the countryside during the summers. Today, villas may be independently owned homes in a plot of land but yet are within a gated community. Villas also offer amenities such as a clubhouse, gym, pool, etc., unlike a duplex.

Difference between duplex and penthouse

Unlike a duplex that is a two-storeyed property, a penthouse is always located in the top floor of a multi-storey building or apartment. These units are expensive, as they offer a good view and are generally the only unit on that particular floor design. All the units that were supposed to be on this floor, are consolidated into one.

Difference between two-storey house and duplex

A duplex house is always a two-storeyed structure but all two-storeyed buildings may not be categorised as duplexes. In duplexes, the floors are connected through a staircase, while two-storeyed properties may be independent of each other and may or may not be connected.

Difference between duplex and independent house 

The term ‘independent home’ is used interchangeably to refer to villas, duplexes and the like. An independent house may have as many floors as desired but a duplex essentially has two floors.

See Also : Gardening of Balconies for Indian homes

What is better: duplex or flat

While both kinds of properties have their own pros and cons, a duplex property will come with more responsibilities than a flat. The property would need more maintenance and upkeep and this means more expenses. For flats, while the maintenance would be less and there will be fewer responsibilities, the experience would be limited to the space inside, as you would have to share the open spaces with other society members. Nevertheless, liquidating an apartment property would be easier than selling a duplex property.

Is it easy to find buyers for a duplex property?

Most property buyers who opt for duplex houses, prefer to invest in it for end-use. For some reason, if they wish to resell the unit, finding the right buyer may be tough. The exact location, demand for such homes, pricing and the city, also matter. However, this does not mean that selling a duplex house in the secondary market is impossible. There are many buyers looking for properties other than apartments.

One of the common concerns about the purchase of duplexes is the safety factor. Unless it is within a gated community, you should take some efforts to ensure safety in and around your property.

Are duplexes common in India?

Duplex units are more common in places where there is considerable land bank. Most Indian cities have now given way to high-rises due to limited land bank. Southern cities, most noticeably, parts of Kerala, Hyderabad and Bangalore, still have duplex properties. Duplex properties are also not uncommon in other parts of the country.

See Also : In 2021,10 Home Decor trends will rule

Risks involved in investing in a duplex

A duplex is often an aspirational lifestyle choice but if you are looking to reap returns from it, you must be careful.  Popular and prime localities across Indian cities are mostly saturated. This means that if you are looking to construct or invest in a duplex, you may have to look at the suburbs and peripheries. The risk sets in if you are looking to earn a handsome rent out of it, which may not be possible in the peripheral areas. Therefore, be mindful of the fact.

Another common risk is that of overpaying for a duplex. Since apartments are what city-dwellers are used to seeing, duplex houses, at first sight, may look like a novelty. Use real estate formal indices and research content online, to quickly crosscheck the demand for such homes in the specific locality and ongoing prices. You will be in a better position to negotiate and make the best deal.

What is the cost of building a duplex house in India?

Depending on the exact location and city, a duplex construction may cost anywhere above Rs 1,500 per sq ft if you go in for basic finishing materials.


What is the difference between a two-storey house and duplex?

A duplex is a two-storeyed structure but all two storeyed building s may not be categorized as duplexes. In duplexes, the floor are connected through a staircase while two storeyed properties may not be independent of each other and may or may not be connected.

What is the difference between Apartments & Duplexes?

Apartment units are usually part of a high-rise, unlike a duplex which is essentially a two storeyed structure, which may have two living units and two different entry points, as well.

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All About Registration Charges & Stamp duty in Pune

Stamp duty & registration charges
Although the stamp duty on sale deed is 5% of the transaction value in Pune, the Maharashtra government has announced reductions of up to 3% up to March 31, 2021

Stamp duty and registration charges are two additional costs that buyers in Pune have to bear, during property purchase. Paid to the government at the time of registration, payment of these charges is compulsory under the provisions of the Registration Act, 1908.

Recall here that stamp duty is a percentage of the property value that the buyers are liable to pay, for registration. Fixed by the state government, the stamp duty Pune is periodically revised to boost or curb demand. In a slow-moving market, rates are tweaked downwards to push up demand.

With this primary reason, the Maharashtra government, in August 2020, announced a temporary reduction of 2% to 3% in the stamp duty on property purchases. The move is likely to result in savings for buyers, at a time when demand for housing has been muted, because of the Coronavirus pandemic. “It was decided to reduce the prevailing stamp duty on the deed of transfer by 3%, for the period from September 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020 and by 2% for the period from January 1, 2021 to March 31, 2021,” a notification by the state government read.

In March too, the Maharashtra government, while presenting the Budget for 2020-21, announced a reduction of stamp duty in Mumbai, Pune and Nashik for a period of two years, bringing it down to 5% from the earlier 6%.

Stamp duty and registration charges in Pune from January 2021 to March 31, 2021

Since the reduction in stamp duty is 2% from January 1, 2021 to March 31, 2021, the applicable stamp duty on property purchases in Pune will come down to 3% from the existing 5% :

GenderStamp dutyRegistration charges
Men3%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value
Women3%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value
Joint3%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value

The Maharashtra government’s move to reduce the stamp duty in order to boost sales, has been instrumental in providing an impetus to the real estate market of Pune, which has been reeling under the impact of an acute rise in the number of Coronavirus infections.

Apart from this, the festive offers that primarily focused on offering cost benefits to home buyers, have also played a key role in boosting sales in the city during the October-December period of 2020, shows Real Insight Residential Annual Round-up 2020, an analysis of India’s eight prime residential markets by brokerage firm

With transactions concluding for 11,548 units, home sales in Pune increased 62% quarter-on quarter.

Stamp duty and registration charges in Pune from April 1, 2021

Since the reduction offered will be applicable only for seven months, the standard stamp duty rate will be reinforced from April 1, 2021.

GenderStamp dutyRegistration charges
Men5%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value
Women5%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value
Joint5%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value

Do note here that with an aim to reduce chaos and help home buyers make the most of the low stamp duty regime, the state government has decided that home buyers can pay the stamp duty fee till December 31, 2020, at 2% and register their properties by April 2021.

According to the state’s stamp duty and registration office, a lot of people are buying properties due to the 2% stamp duty offer, resulting in a long waiting period at counters. The decision has been taken to deal with this issue.

See also MahaRERA Asks Builder Not to Differentiate Between Buyer & Investor

Stamp duty and registration charges in Pune till December 31, 2020

Since the reduction in stamp duty is of 3%, from September 1 to December 31, 2020, the applicable stamp duty on property purchases in Pune will come down to 2%, from the existing 5% :

GenderStamp dutyRegistration charges
Men2%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value
Women2%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value
Joint2%Properties above Rs 30 lakhs: Rs 30,000.Properties below Rs 30 lakhs: 1% of the deal value

How to calculate stamp duty in Pune?

Buyers have to pay the rate fixed on the overall value of the property. However, to arrive at the property value, the buyer must first find out the circle rate in the area in which the property is located.

Stamp duty for women in Pune

Unlike other states, where the stamp duty is lower for women, rates are the same for men and women in Maharashtra. Consequently, irrespective of their gender, buyers pay a standard charge on property registration.

See also Transfer of Property Act, 1882

What is ready reckoner rate?

The ready reckoner rate (RR), as it is known across Maharashtra, or the circle rate, is the government-fixed rate, below which a property cannot be sold in an area. In a scenario where the seller has priced the property at less than the government-fixed ready rates, the stamp duty calculation will still be based on the RR rates.

By multiplying the circle rate with the area of the property, the buyer can calculate the value of the property and then calculate the stamp duty.


Suppose Ram Kumar is buying a home which has a carpet area of 300 sq metres. The property is at Baner, where the circle rate is Rs 42,760 per sq metre. In this case the overall value of the property will be:

Carpet area x rate per sq metre = Property value

400 x 42,760 = Rs 12,828,000

Considering the stamp duty in Pune at 5% of the property value, Kumar will have to pay Rs 6,41,400 as stamp duty. Since the property’s worth is over Rs 30 lakhs, Kumar will be paying an additional Rs 30,000 as the registration charge.

Can you pay stamp duty online?

Buyers in Pune can pay the stamp duty and the registration charges online, by visiting the official portal, (click here).

Once you have registered yourself, you can proceed with the payment. For this you will have to provide every detail pertaining to the property and pay using online channels, such as internet banking. A receipt will be generated once the payment is successful. After this, the buyer can book an appointment and proceed with the property registration.

Alternatively, buyers can also pay the stamp duty in Pune by purchasing non-judicial stamp papers from a recognized vendor or through franking, where authorized banks stamp your document or affix a denomination on it, which acts as a proof that the stamp duty for the transaction has been paid.


Can I pay stamp duty online in Pune?

Buyers can pay the stamp duty online by visiting the official portal.

Is visiting the sub-registrar’s office necessary in Pune?

Parties involved in a property transaction have to visit the sub-registrar’s office for biometric identification.

What is the stamp duty on property purchase in Pune?

In Pune, buyers have to pay 5% of the property value as stamp duty. However due to the corona virus induced slowdown, the Maharashtra Government announced a reduction in stamp duty rates by up to 3% till March 31, 2021.

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Brownfield Projects

brownfield project
While a project developed on an undeveloped land is a greenfield project, a brownfield project is one that is developed on land that is already used

There are two types of infrastructure projects – greenfield development and brownfield development. While a project developed on previously undeveloped land is a greenfield project, a brownfield project is exactly the opposite of this. Read on to know more about brownfield development.

Brownfield Project – A brownfield project is one, where the development work is carried out in a place where prior work has been done. It refers to a project, where an existing one is rebuilt, modified or upgraded.

Greenfield Project – A greenfield project is one, where the land on which the project is developed, has never been used & there is no need to rebuild or demolish an existing structure.

What is brownfield project?

Brownfield is a term used in urban planning. It means land that has been used previously but is lying vacant or unused now. This land could have been contaminated by industrial waste or hazardous waste or might have suspected oil contamination.

A brownfield site was once a commercially developed parcel but currently not in use for any purpose. Such brownfield land parcels are found mostly in western countries. It has been generally used for oil refineries, railroads, gas stations or heavy manufacturing plants.

See Also Home Construction Loans

Greenfield vs brownfield project

Greenfield projectBrownfield project
Sites that have not earlier been built on, are called greenfield.A site that has been built on earlier, is called brownfield.
Often found in rural / countryside areas.Normally associated with urban areas.
Using greenfield sites is not always sustainable, as there is too much pressure on the rural-urban fringe.Brownfield development is more sustainable, as it reduces the pressure on greenfield sites.
Greenfield sites are often on the edge of towns and cities and may have better access and less congestion.Providing public transport networks is easier in central areas where the population densities are high.

Why the brownfield sites are preferred?

Since land becomes degenerated if it is left unused, government authorities prefer developing and regenerating the used land, so that the area does not go waste. However, it is always expensive to make brownfield sites fit for development, since companies have to spare expenses on clearing the waste on the land and getting the required permissions for its development.

Moreover, builders need to hire experts and technicians to remediate the brownfield site, to remove possible contamination completely. In some cases, it might still persist and add to environmental pollution.


Why is brownfield better than greenfield?

Brownfield redevelopment can be cheaper, because vital infrastructure (drainage, electricity, roads, transport networks etc.) may already exist.

What is an example of brownfield ?

Abandoned oil refineries, chemical factories & heavy manufacturing units, are some example of brownfield sites.

What are brownfield sites used for?

Brownfield sites are generally redeveloped for housing & commercial buildings, open spaces for recreation and even for community areas.

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Pradhan Mantri UDAY Yojana

People staying in illegal colonies in Delhi can now apply for their property registry through the PM UDAY scheme

For people staying in unauthorized colonies of Delhi, regularization has been a far-fetched dream. Property owners, who do not have registration papers, find it difficult to sell or mortgage their asset. To help such people, the central government has come out with the Pradhan Mantri Unauthorized Colonies in Delhi Awas Adhikar Yojana (PM-UDAY).

Under the scheme, people from unauthorized colonies can apply for ownership rights through an online portal. If approved, the applicant will get the registry papers by paying a nominal fee. The entire process is being implemented under the Delhi Development Authority (DDA).

What is the PM-UDAY scheme?

It is estimated that about 50 lakh people in Delhi reside in unauthorized colonies, which are located on private or public land. Properties in these illegal colonies, whether in the form of plots of land or built-up space, are generally held through Will, or general power of attorney (GPA), or agreement to sell, or payment and possession of documents.

To solve this problem, the central government formed a committee, to recommend the process for recognizing ownership or mortgage/ transfer rights to the residents of these 1,731 illegal colonies in Delhi. Also, the National Capital Territory of Delhi (Recognition of Property Rights of Residents in Unauthorized Colonies) Act, 2019, was enacted by the parliament, to allow registration of properties in these colonies.

See Also DDA to announce housing scheme in December 2020 !!!

How to apply for property rights under PM UDAY?

If you are a resident of Delhi and own a property in any unauthorized colony of the national capital, you are eligible to apply for property registry papers on the PM UDAY portal. Follow the procedure step-by-step:

Step 1: Visit the PM UDAY Portal (click here) and scroll down to find the ‘Registration’ option.

Step 2: Fill the applicant details such as name, address, mobile number and select the colony from the drop-down menu. Once your registration is done, an acknowledgement receipt will be displayed. Note down the unique registration number and details of the empanelled GIS agencies.

Step 3: The applicant can call any of the three empanelled GIS agencies for fixing the geo-coordinates of the property. The selected agency will visit the property to fix the geo-coordinates and upload the same on the DDA’s portal. Once this is done, the applicant will receive a unique ‘GIS ID’ on his/her registered mobile number and email ID.

Step 4: The applicant should then login on the PM-UDAY portal, by entering the mobile number provided during registration. Click on the ‘File Application’ link and a detailed application form will be displayed.

See Also Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA)

Step 5: The applicant then needs to furnish the property details, details of the land on which property is situated, details of owners, etc.

Step 6: Upload the scanned copies of the following documents:

  • Latest general power of attorney and agreement to sell (ATS) or sale deed
  • Will
  • Payment document (payment receipt)
  • Possession document
  • Previous chain of documents in serial order
  • Documentary proof of construction prior to January 1, 2015 (in case of built-up properties)
  • Any other document of ownership
  • Property tax mutation document, if any
  • Electricity bill
  • Affidavit, undertaking and I-bonds (templates are available in the application form).

Step 7: After filling-in all necessary information and uploading all the relevant documents, submit the application. The applicant also needs to upload the signature file. Print the final submitted application that will have a unique case ID, to be referred to in all future communications.

PM UDAY: Helpdesks

The DDA has facilitated 28 helpdesks, to guide the applicants and to provide assistance to applicants who are unable to submit their applications on the DDA’s portal. The applicants can visit these helpdesks for any information or assistance to submit their application.

Helpdesk location and contact details

AddressDetails of contact personsHelpdesk No
Office of Ex Engineer, SWD-6 Sector-5, Nursary, Dwarka, New DelhiVijay Bhan, AD 9968268175; Jasbir Kaur Khurana, ASO, 9911399776102
Office of Ex Engineer, WD-2 Janakpuri, Block-B2B, New DelhiRam Niwas, DD 9971176311; Ram Singh Bisht, ASO 9971731782103
Office of Ex Engineer, WD-3 LakkarMandi Nagar, Near Mayapuri Chowk, New DelhiJai Bhagwan, AD 9871707274; Subrata Kumar Basu, ASO 7982649245104
Office of Ex Engineer, WD-7 PaschimVihar, Double Tanki, PeeraGarhi, New DelhiOm Pal Singh, ASO 9811285456105
Office of Ex Engineer, SD-1 Near Mukarba Chowk, GT Karnal Road, Azadpur, DelhiVirenderGulati, ASO 9891399129; Purushottam Kumar, AD, 8860370795201
Office of Ex Engineer, ND-1 Pitampura, Near TV Tower, DelhiRakesh Kumar Sharma, AD 9971466619; Usha Sharma, ASO 8368280610203
Office of Ex Engineer, ND-3 BBM Depot, Kingsway Camp, DelhiNaresh Pal Srivastava, AD 9868938507; Rita Ratra, ASO 9210129126204
Office of Ex Engineer, RPD-1 Deepali Chowk, Rohini, DelhiRekha Rani, AD 9582834644; Ram Niwas (ASO) 9540455996301
Office of Ex Engineer, RPD-2 Madhuban Chowk, Rohini, DelhiNarottam Sharma, AD 9968317125; Jai Singh, (ASO) 9818075096302
Office of Ex Engineer, ED-4 Institutional Area, Karkardooma, DelhiGopal Singh, AD 9540261369; Sunil Kumar Jain, ASO 8368766765401
Office of Ex Engineer, ED-8 Seed Bed Park, School Block, Shakarpur, DelhiMK Srivastava, DD 9968090343; Raj Kumar, ASO 9810176228; Vinod Kumar, ASO 9312383372402
Office of Ex Engineer, WD-5 VikasMinar, ITO, New Delhi.Kailash Chander Joshi, AD 9899141324; Dinesh Kumar Aggarwal, ASO 9891663676403
Office of Ex Engineer, ED-12 LM Bandh, Geeta Colony, Opp. Taj Sartaj CHBS, DelhiBirSingh, DD 9871047048; Chandra Dutt Sharma, ASO 9899701985404
Office of Ex Engineer, Electrical, ED- 7 Lawrence Road Near Water Tank, DelhiAshok Kumar, ASO, 9773647552405
Office of Ex Engineer, South Div.-3 Nehru Place, New DelhiSushil Kumar, AD 9911817272; Anil Kumar, ASO 8851373412501
Office of Ex Engineer, South Div-2 Kalkaji, New DelhiPradeep Kumar, AD, 986888371; Rishi Pal Sharma, ASO, 9811014165502
Office of Ex Engineer, Electrical-ED6 Nelsan Mandela Road Complex, Vasant Kunj, New DelhiMohd Israr, ASO 9810497309; Shikha Chakravarty, ASO, 9717275172503
Office of Ex Engineer, SWD-5 Sarita Vihar, New Delhi.Naseem Ahmed, AD 7011150405; Rakesh Pati Tripathi, ASO 9990026000504
Office of Superintending Engineer (HQ), (South Zone) AGVC, SahapurJat, Khel GoanJagbir Singh Gulaiya, DD 9910303375; Anil Kumar, ASO 9868521555505
Community Room Suraj Park Sector-18 Rohini Opposite Platinum ApartmentSudarshan Chakker Rawat, AD 9717729253; Prem Prakash Arora, ASO 7838095144506
Office of Ex Engineer, SWD-2 Vasant Kunj, New DelhiAnil Kumar Shah, (AD) 9818302264; Ramender Kumar Yadav, ASO 9599262369507
Office of Ex Engineer, WD-7 PVC Market, Tikri Kalan, Near PS MundkaAnil Kumar Verma, AD 9213607307; Gajinder Kumar, ASO 9625848615508
Panchayat Ghar, Near Chungi Number 2, B-Block, Lal Quan (Near Councillor Office).Sunil Kr Murjani, AD, 9871438005; Mahadevan, ASO, 9868500182; Mange Ram, ASO, 9910504260510
Room No 16, Ground Floor SDMC Zonal Building, Near Dhansa Stand, Najafgarh, New Delhi-43Ram Prakash Tiwari, ASO 8130137625; Sudesh Kumar, ASO, 9810495519514
MCD Store of Ward 39 at Goela DairyNarender Pal Sharma, ASO 9810539338; Chandresh Kr Vashisht, ASO 9911922480515
Kakraula Rajmata Jijabai Park Near Dwarka Mor Metro StationBhuwan Chand Kandpal, ASO 9868031072518
DDA Camp Office, Mayur Vihar Phase-II Delhi- 110091Dev Dutt Sharma, ASO 9911281219; Balesh Ram, ASO 9871404516534

How to check application status on PM UDAY?

Applicants can check the application status on PM UDAY portal by following the given procedure:

Step 1: Visit the PM UDAY Portal (click here) and scroll down to find the ‘Published Application’ or ‘Disposed Application’ options.

Step 2: You will be redirected to a new page, where you can search your name and case ID, to check if the application has been approved.

See Also Calculations, Online Payments & Importance of Property Tax


What does the PM UDAY mean?

The PM UDAY means Pradhan Mantri Unauthorized Colonies in Delhi Awas Adhikar Yojana.

What is PM UDAY?

The PM UDAY is a central government scheme to confer property rights to the people staying in illegal colonies in Delhi.

Can I apply online for the PM UDAY?

Yes. You can apply for PM UDAY online.

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Crowdfunding in Real Estate

real estate crowdfunding
Crowdfunding is a financial model wherein the developer is able to raise capital by bringing in a pool of interested investors

These days, real estate crowdfunding for a cause is extremely popular. You would have heard about people donating money for a cause, towards the medical care of a person who is unable to pay for themselves, or for the construction of a charity hospital.

There are so many reasons why people may like to volunteer, to donate or support a cause monetarily. Most of us get to know of these causes through social media. Such platforms connect people from around the world and make crowdfunding possible. While you may have heard about similar social causes, crowdfunding in real estate also exists.

Crowdfunding & real estate

Crowdfunding in the real estate space is no different. It helps real estate investors to bring in large amounts of capital, easily and quickly. In turn, they become shareholders in the company or the property. Through crowdfunding, they are able to become shareholders in a project and are able to raise the capital that they would not have been able to, otherwise. Having said that, crowdfunding in Indian real estate is not as mature and popular when compared to crowdfunding for social causes.

For example.

A real estate developer sees a dilapidated property that has no amenities. This property, perhaps for its locational value, is priced at Rs 2.5 crores. The developer notes down his requirements and makes certain estimates, with respect to renovation, developing the amenities, etc.

Suppose, he/she estimates that with the required renovation and development at a cost of Rs 1.5 crores, the market value of this property will be Rs 8 crores over four to five years. So, this person requires Rs 4 crores now. Here is where crowdfunding comes up as an opportunity for individual investors.

The developer prefers these investors, rather than taking a bank loan.

Characteristics of crowdfunding

It is illiquid: You cannot sell the property at your own will, simply because it is not entirely yours and there are many investors and stakeholders.

High-value projects: You may or may not afford to invest in a high-token project but with a crowdfunding setup, you just need to put in whatever you can afford and be part of a much bigger project.

Transparency: Unlike Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) that involve a whole lot of managing of assets and books, a crowdfunding set-up is comparatively easier and transparent.

Risk: When you invest in a brand or a well-known developer’s project, you know what you are getting into. A lot of details about the developer’s financial health, their track record of development and delivery projects, are available in the public domain.

Most developers who seek crowdfunding may be lesser-known. Sometimes, their plans may not take off and there is some risk involved.

Returns: Unlike crowdfunding for social causes where there are no tangible returns, crowdfunding for real estate projects help investors to get proportionate returns and there is a possibility of high returns.

See Also Knowledge About Mumbai Metro Corridors

Types of crowdfunding in real estate

Equity crowdfunding

One of the ways to crowdfund is to go with the equity-based model. In this, you invest a small amount to help the developer raise the capital and in return, you receive a share (when the property is sold) or a percentage of the rental amount. This model generally gives more returns to investors.

Debt crowdfunding

The more traditional and popular out of the two types of crowdfunding, debt-based crowdfunding involves the investor receiving a fixed interest rate, which is proportional to the amount invested.

See Also Ground in Real Estate

REITs versus crowdfunding

Not free to choose which property to invest inFreedom to choose the property
Guaranteed income for investors in the form of dividendsLow to high returns
Involves maintenance costsInvestor need not manage or maintain the asset
Lesser transparencyEasier to track and understand
Low-risk investmentCan be risky
Heavy expenses, as minimum investment is high (Rs 2 lakhs) in IndiaLower expenses, no minimum investment amount
Not meant for small investorsDoes not require any credit checks


What is the biggest difference between REITS & Crowdfunding?

REITs are better managed by a regulator. On the other hand, is within the reach of many big & small investors and runs the risk of poor management, at times.

Do REIT shares have higher liquidity than crowdfunding shares?

Yes, given that REITs get traded daily on stock exchanges, these can be bought or sold quicker.

What is the minimum amount required to investment in crowdfunding of real estate project in India?

India is not very advanced when it comes to the crowdfunding financial model. However, the advantages of crowdfunding is that there is no minimum amount, unlike in the case of REITs.

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Industry Pins Recovery Hopes on COVID-19 Vaccine, Government Measures : Real estate in 2021

real estate in 2021
As we step into 2021, the real estate sector is hoping for a revival of the economy and income levels, as well as demand from home buyers and successful distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine.

Real Estate 2021 : The year 2020 was eventful for many reasons. The world faced its first pandemic in a hundred years, the global economy came to a standstill and millions of people lost their homes and livelihood in a matter of days. Amidst all this, there was one sector, apart from technology and healthcare that continued to amaze analysts and this was the housing market.

The Indian housing market, in 2020, saw an enormous increase in interest from retail investors, including people buying their first homes, as well as those upgrading to a bigger home in search of extra space to be used as home offices.

However, for co-working and commercial space owners, the year brought immense difficulty, as people switched to remote working and online shopping for most part of the year. Will anything change in 2021? Some industry insiders maintain that things are definitely looking up.

See Also Carpet Area in RERA Act

Demand for spacious homes

In real estate in 2021, the biggest trend to watch out for will be the ongoing demand for bigger homes with additional rooms or spaces to be used as offices. As people adjust to the new normal, an extra room will be a welcome change for millennial buyers, who are keen to work from home rather than traveling long distances to office or paying higher rents to stay close to the office. Moreover, as vaccine distribution in India is still going to take time, the reopening of office may not happen at full volume. Till then, work-from-home will remain the norm for the millennial workforce.

“Considering access to vaccines will take time and the current work-from-home situation, the concept of OBHK (Office-Bed-H-K) will get more traction from home buyers,” says Chintan Sheth, director, Ashwin Sheth Group.

New launches to pick up

As India went under a complete lockdown in March 2020, the migration of the labour force created shortage of manpower at construction sites, impacting project launches and delivery timelines. While the scarcity of construction labourers is still an issue in big cities, new launches may now resume. However, people would still prefer ready-to-move-in homes over under-construction properties, owing to the risk associated with the latter.

“We expect the aspirational market to continue to lean towards ready-to-move-in apartments and the luxury segment to contribute to high revenue and cash flow to organisations. The centre stage, however, will be taken by the new launches which have been sluggish this year,” adds Ajay Singh, assistant VP– sales, Century Real Estate.

Evolving marketing and technological innovation

Real estate brands went the extra mile to lure buyers. From video walkthroughs and virtual reality videos, to virtual site-visits and inventory selection, the real estate segment saw new levels of technological innovation, even by those buyers who were not comfortable with technology.

“The role of technology expanded in real estate, with developers leveraging 3D walkthroughs and virtual reality, to improve customer experience and sustain the momentum of sales, while additionally focusing on improving construction methodologies. Digital channels such as AR/VR helped in creating the visual depiction of projects for new inquiries, along with 24/7 chatbot services and video calls, to facilitate the buying process and enhance the sales journey,” elaborates Reeza Sebastian, president, residential business, Embassy Group.

Thanks to technology-enabled solutions, the active participation from NRI investors is the new-found wealth for real estate sellers. The early adoption of technology by the real estate segment is a welcome change for the overseas buyers, who used to depend on their domestic resources for property scouting, site visits and even property documentation.

“Real estate is almost always driven by what people want and the current pandemic has made that evident. What’s more, in terms of investment, we can look forward to active participation from NRI customers, who wish to explore lucrative investment opportunities in India,” adds Goel.

Real estate industry’s expectations in 2021

Industry stalwarts are pinning their hopes on economic recovery and successful distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, as a turning point for 2021.

Experts point to the RBI’s decision to reduce the repo rate and some states’ temporary reduction in stamp duty charges, as some of the reasons behind this unimaginable recovery.

“Post-April 2021 there will be a period of slowdown, after this phase of panic buying until March 2021. We sense the government at the centre is wanting to bring lending rates closer to levels at which the western countries lend. We expect the GDP growth to turn positive in Q4 of FY2021. With steady decline in the number of COVID-19 infections across the country and the vaccine around the corner, we expect far better days for the economy going forward,” says Kaushal Agarwal, chairman, The Guardians Real Estate Advisory.

However, the mutation of the Coronavirus seen in the UK and lockdowns in some European countries, may dampen the sentiments of the investors early next year.

Future of commercial real estate in 2021

For the co-working and commercial office space segments, there is a ray of hope, as corporations plan to bring their employees back to work and practice hybrid remote working. The stakeholders are confident that the best is yet to come for the segment and that investors will get their due return, in time.

“Co-working spaces across the country witnessed a drastic decline in revenue, due to the pandemic. Now that companies are resuming businesses, co-working spaces are expected to see gradual penetration in the coming months.

Bigger enterprises will look for smaller spaces to accommodate their employees on a shift basis. Besides this, the start-ups that are emerging in tier-2 and tier-3 cities, will also boost occupancy in local co-working spaces,” explains Abhay Chawla, co-founder of India Accelerator, a mentorship-driven incubator in India for technology companies.

The commercial segment, including co-living and co-working, could bounce back, because of the innovative offerings and demand for efficiently designed office spaces. Once this picks up, REITs would also become an attractive proposition again.

Annuj Goel, CMD, Goel Ganga Developments, said that commercial properties could witness major interest in 2021, as the pandemic has allowed working professionals to collaborate creatively and effectively, via various innovative tools. With offices reopening, we could see greater adoption of tech-enabled properties that offer lots of flexibility, as well as improve efficiency. Additionally, with SEBI revising some rules around REITs, the commercial real estate space could see greater investment opportunities in 2021.

According to some experts, the influx of migrant population to metro cities, as and when companies reopen. It will bring back the demand for quality accommodations.

Kahraman Yigi said that the co-living spaces and shared accommodations will gradually become a necessity for modern migrants. As they adjust and familiarise themselves with the new normal. As long as there is rising demand for affordable accommodation in cities, co-living will continue to be a lucrative business.

See Also Registration Laws and Stamp Duty for Rentals in Maharashtra

Regulatory boost to real estate in 2021

The government has managed to keep the sector afloat, by introducing a number of measures to boost home-buying. While most of the experts opine that all state governments should bring down the property registration charges. There is also some muted demand for introducing new measures, to boost investment from second home buyers and investors.

“The support of the government will play a transformational role in making home buying more affordable and hassle-free. The nationwide reduction in interest rates and the slashing of stamp duty for the affordable segment in Karnataka. They are very welcome steps in this direction. We hope the government will take steps towards boosting the real estate sector, such as improving infrastructure, connectivity, etc. This will ensure development and affordable options for first-time buyers,” says Singh.

Moreover, the repo rates, which have been kept low this year. It may rise in the next financial year to control inflation. Consequently, experts are wary and suggest that funds should be made available to buyers and businesses. It keeps the momentum going even after March 2021.

See Also Conveyance deed: Real Estate

“We do not think the government should increase the rate of interest, as the market has just started to get better and stabilise. In the coming days, the government should make more funds available for businesses, as well as end-users,” says Goel.

Tax benefits to incentivize home buying, is a long-pending demand of the industry. To keep the real estate sales number encouraging, this could be the way-ahead for the government in Union Budget 2021.

Sheth says that individual tax benefits along with an increase in income tax deduction limits, will benefit lakhs of taxpayers. This will induce and incentivize home buyers to buy property. Also, further concession in stamp duties, reduction in ready reckoner rates and slashing GST to zero. It will prompt home buyers to make purchases and increase consumption.


What is the present GST on Real Estate?

The GST rate is 1% for affordable housing and 5% for non – affordable housing, for under construction properties.

Will the demand for for co-working spaces increase in 2021?

The demand for smaller co-working spaces may increase gradually, as companies seek to accommodate their employees on a shift basis. Demand for co-working could also increase in in tier-2 and tire-3 cities.

Which states are offering concessions on stamp duty & registration?

Maharashtra, Karnataka & Madhya Pradesh have lowered stamp duty rates & other state may follow suit.

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Ground in Real Estate

ground in real estate
Ground, a local land measurement unit, is used in the southern part of India

Even though the use of globally-accepted land measurement units has become prominent in the urban sphere, usage of more local units are still popular in rural parts of India. One among such land measurement units, is ‘ground’ in real estate.

A Ground is a land measurement unit that is popular in southern & some central parts of India.

One Ground is commonly considered as being equal to 2400 Sq.ft.

Ground conversion

Considered the oldest unit of area measurement. And one ground in real estate is commonly considered as large as 2,400 square feet (sq ft). Typically, a ground is first divided into different plots and then, further into layouts, for building construction purposes. These layouts are then defined in sq ft. And ground terms.Often used in Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. One ground is also considered equal to about 203 sq metres (sq mt) in Mumbai. In Kerala, it is equal to about 222.967 sq metres.

Convert Ground to Square Feet

Before the 20th century, when the international units of land measurement started gaining popularity in India, half-a-ground space in some Indian states was used to build small individual homes, especially in tier-2 and tier-3 cities.

In rural areas of states, where the unit has been traditionally used, it is still used for land measurement purposes.

See Also Calculations of Land Value

Ground as a land measurement unit

Ground used to be among the land measurement units popular in southern and some central parts of India. However, it is most often used in the rural parts of Tamil Nadu.

Apart from ground, cent, ankanam and guntha are some of the other popular land measurement units, which are frequently used in various parts of south India. Amid the growing use of international measurement units, the use of ground is largely being replaced by the more common land measurement units.


Use of ground as land measurement units is popular in which states?

The use of ground as land measurement units is popular in Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

How large is one ground in real estate?

A land measurement unit, 1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.

Aside from ground, what other land measurement units are popular in South India?

Cent, Ankanam & Guntha are some of the other local land measurement units used in South India.